Eliminating Listeria in your Facility…the musical

Listeria monocytogenes on oxford agar
L. monocytogenes on Oxford Agar. Source: wikipedia commons author Nathan Reading

So I know that all of you who subscribe to Fur, Farm, and Fork do so for the meticulously researched analysis of food safety and regulatory issues.

So… here’s a Rihanna song parody about eliminating Listeria from a food plant!

…it was fun. And this is my site so I can do what I want.

If you want to listen to someone  sing it, download the mp3 here.

Lyrics below, basically covering where Listeria can be found in the food plant enjoy!

 Listeria (Disturbia Parody)

Bum Bum bio bum bum bio-film

Bum Bum bio bum bum bio-film

Bum Bum bio bum bum bio-film

Bum Bum bio bum bum bio-film

 

[what did we find

I didn’t expect this

What are we gonna do now]

 

What do these results mean

(presumptive positive)

Near the wall, near the sink

(where there was standing water)

Right where we process cream

(and products ready-to-eat)

Get the QA team together

 

It’s a sneaky microbe

Riding on your shoes

It can grow in the cold

Where it eludes you

A poison in your food

And it can end you

It’s too close for comfort

 

Let’s tear this room apart

We need to swab every square foot

Then the spare parts

We can get to the cause root

Use those trending charts

Why didn’t we catch this last year

It’s not in the product, we swear

 

But we just found Listeria

All the product’s been retained

Listeria

Biofilms in our drains

Listeria

Might be from the supply chain

Listeria

Listeria

 

Bum Bum bio bum bum bio-film

Bum Bum bio bum bum bio-film

Bum Bum bio bum bum bio-film

Bum Bum bio bum bum bio-film

 

Condensate drips from the walls

(we can’t see from where it comes)

These concrete cracks aren’t that small

(The floors are twenty years old)

We need some new grout

Old equipment thrown out

It’s too close for comfort

 

It’s a sneaky microbe

Riding on your shoes

It can grow in the cold

Where it eludes you

A poison in your food

And it can end you

It could be anywhere

 

Let’s tear this room apart

We need to swab every square foot

Then the spare parts

We can get to the cause root

Use those trending charts

Why didn’t we catch this last year

It’s not in the product, we swear

 

But we just found Listeria

All the product’s been retained

Listeria

Biofilms in our drains

Listeria

Might be from the supply chain

Listeria

Listeria

 

Bum Bum bio bum bum bio-film

Bum Bum bio bum bum bio-film

Bum Bum bio bum bum bio-film

Bum Bum bio bum bum bio-film

 

Risk assessments are now change-in

Zero tolerance And we’re jumpin-in

We didn’t no, oh, oh

Grab your swabs and let’s go oh oh

 

Let’s tear this room apart

We need to swab every square foot

Then the spare parts

We can get to the cause root

Use those trending charts

Why didn’t we catch this last year

It’s not in the product, we swear

 

But we just found Listeria

All the product’s been retained

Listeria

Biofilms in our drains

Listeria

Might be from the supply chain

Listeria

Listeria

 

Bum Bum bio bum bum bio-film

Bum Bum bio bum bum bio-film

Bum Bum bio bum bum bio-film

Bum Bum bio bum bum bio-film

 


Inspired by various warning letters at companies associated with outbreaks of Listeria monocytogenes. Original song performed by Rihanna, music composed by Robert Allen, Chris Brown, Andre Darrell Merritt, and Brian Kennedy Seals. Instrumental background sourced from www.karaoke-version.com.

This media file may contain copyrighted material that qualifies as fair use under the Copyright act of 1976. 17 U.S.C. Section 107. See Campbell vs. Acuff-Rose Music (92-1292), 510 US 569

 

Presence of fecal coliforms does not mean “there’s poop here”, but for aspiring poop-hunters is there an alternative?

Image created by Austin Bouck. Dear god let there be no egregious mistakes…

Recently a podcast I often listen to has discussed several articles with a similar note in their conclusions.

Nearly half of the 90 beverages from soda fountain machines in one area in Virginia tested positive for coliform bacteria — which could indicate possible fecal contamination

The study, conducted over six months at six licensed day-care centers in California, found high levels of coliform contamination, particularly in kitchen areas and on the hands of day-care workers. Coliform bacteria are transmitted through feces.

But recent reports reveal that the coffee or tea you’re sipping  – and even the cash you used to pay for it –  also carry bacteria found in feces.

Seven out of 10 samples of Costa ice were found to be contaminated with bacteria found in faeces.

40 percent of office coffee mugs contain coliform bacteria, which can be found in feces.

I don’t need to rehash arguments that have already been made here. Fecal coliform is a group of organisms historically used to identify whether drinking water could be contaminated with sewage or fecal material. Because it’s still a valid test to determine if water has been contaminated (they don’t survive forever in clean water, so if they’re present it’s because there’s a likely a failure in the system), the CDC and tons of state regulations still falsely state that these organisms are only found in fecal material.

Part of the issue is that coliforms as an indicator in general were extrapolated to environmental samples and food. NACMCF summarized the most recent scientific conclusion:

…whether coliforms, fecal coliforms, Enterobacteriaceae or E. coli. Kornacki and others (Kornacki et al., 2013) provide an historical evaluation of these criteria for foods and their utility based on current knowledge. None of these criteria accurately and consistently reflect fecal contamination of raw and processed foods nor are they useful or reliable as index organisms predicting the presence of pathogens.

The Kornacki reference is from the Compendium of methods for the Microbiological Examination of foods, which while expensive is an excellent reference for any food micro lab:

The debunking of the coliform=feces absolute conclusion was well covered by Doyle and Erickson in 2006, and more recently some thoughts were posted by barfblog.

But I’m writing this post today because I have a follow up question,

How exactly would someone actually test for fecal material?

Apparently, this is actually a problem in forensics, as an article published as recently as 2013 stated”no sensitive and simple fecal identification method using molecular biological techniques has been reported.” (Nakanishi et al., 2013). Here were the methods I was able to find with a cursory review of the literature.

1. Direct (macro) observation

A.k.a, the stain on the tighty-whities. Feces can be identified from it’s characteristic green-brown color from bile digestion and characteristic odor…this detection method isn’t really worth going into and I apologize for the mental image/odor.

2. Microscopy

Now we’re getting sciencey. Fecal material is a hodgepodge of various microscopic indicators. An experienced eye would be able to find bacteria (the bulk of the dry weight), but also undigested food particles and cellulose cell walls from plant material. Some epithelial and mucousal cells from the GI tract would also be visible. Interestingly, one way to determine if the fecal material was from a person or animal would be to look for excess hair in the sample, either from digesting prey or from grooming. The hair has to go somewhere, and I’m really curious if you would see a difference in hair mass between bearded and clean shaven men…

3. Chemical Indicators

Urobilinogen is a byproduct of bilirubin metabolism, and will be found in animals which consume meat and/or are otherwise digesting blood.  This appears to be a fairly classic test to discriminate fecal material from other bodily fluids like sweat or saliva and can be performed on site using a fluorescence indicator solution. Unfortunately, urobilinogen can also be found in urine since it is also returned to the kidneys for excretion.

4. Microbiological Profile

Well, crap. Here we come full circle. The most recent research on this subject seems to be using newer sequencing techniques to identify the unique organisms in the microbiome of feces. The goal is to find specific organisms or genes that would allow forensic scientists to discriminate between fecal material and other bodily fluids.

Here’s the thing though, none of the research identifies coliforms as a group of interest. It’s too broad and unhelpful! Rather than traditional “fecal bacteria”, the Bacteriodes genus has been identified as the predominant organism group in feces. Specific organisms identified were B. uniformis, B. vulgatus, and B. thetaiotaomicron. However, the state of California has specifically identified these organisms thriving in marshlands, yet still attribute them directly to feces. It would seem that again we can infer that fecal material is likely to contain these organisms, but it seems improper to assume that the presence of the organisms means that fecal material was the source.

I’d love to hear from some forensic scientists on what I got right and wrong here. From what I can tell from the literature it seems like there isn’t as much forensic interest in fecal material. The authors referenced how it is hard to isolate DNA due to interference from bile enzymes and microorganisms, which would reduce its value as evidence.

It seems like at this time a definitive test for “there is poop on this plate/ice/food/hand” doesn’t exist.

Much to the chagrin of PCRM, who would like us to declare the invisible feces on our meat.

Maybe we can just stop making the correlation between feces and food hygiene and instead focus on pathogen detection/prevention/pervasiveness as a means to evaluate foods on the market. While we talk about the fecal-oral route a lot, we’ve known for a long time that pathogens can be found almost anywhere if you start looking, so let’s look for them instead of fecal coliform clickbait (which this post totally is).

 

 

Resources for fecal identification forensics:

Drexler, Judith Z., et al. “Marsh Soils as Potential Sinks for Bacteroides Fecal Indicator Bacteria, Waccamaw National Wildlife Refuge, Georgetown, SC, USA.” Water, Air, & Soil Pollution 225.2 (2014): 1861.

Forensic Resources.Serology – Blood and other Bodily Fluids. http://www.ncids.com/forensic/serology/serology.shtml

James, Stuart H., Jon J. Nordby, and Suzanne Bell, eds. Forensic science: an introduction to scientific and investigative techniques. CRC press, 2002.

Li, Richard. Forensic biology. CRC Press, 2015.

Nakanishi, Hiroaki, et al. “Identification of feces by detection of Bacteroides genes.” Forensic Science International: Genetics7.1 (2013): 176-179.

Virkler, Kelly, and Igor K. Lednev. “Analysis of body fluids for forensic purposes: from laboratory testing to non-destructive rapid confirmatory identification at a crime scene.” Forensic Science International 188.1 (2009): 1-17.

Zou, Kai-Nan, et al. “Identification of vaginal fluid, saliva, and feces using microbial signatures in a Han Chinese population.” Journal of forensic and legal medicine 43 (2016): 126-131.

4th grade presentation: water treatment on the Oregon trail

Austin Bouck classroom presentation
Apparently I have T-Rex arms here…I was excited!

I had the honor once again to make a presentation to two 4th grade classes at a local elementary school during their Oregon Trail unit. The question posed to the students was:

Your wagon train has broken down, and you need to find water for your entire group. What can you do to make sure the water is safe?

I came in to cover the topic of water treatment. The presentation was based on several key points:

  1. What kinds of hazards/dangers do you need to address with water (or food in general)?
  2. What did pioneers on the Oregon trail know about these hazards in 1811-1840? (hint: no germ theory yet)
  3. Which hazards do different treatments address, and which ones would have been available at the time?

The presentation consists of me blabbering and motioning wildly, a powerpoint, and a visual aid. The visual is a set of configurable pegboards to represent different filtration “pore” sizes, and demonstrate how effective they might be depending on the situation.

4th grade Oregon Trail unit on water filtration
Steeper slope=more water pressure. Bill Nye, whenever you’re ready to have me on…

I can’t post the ppt here because I’m certain I used a number of copyright images. However I was able to record the presentation this year, so I can make the audio available. It’s about 25 minutes long including the questions. But if you’re into this kind of thing, or want to learn about different water treatments, enjoy!

Fur, Farm, and Fork awarded IFSQN Member of the Month

Me and the other person with the NPR donation mug can stare each other down now.

I’m proud to be awarded Member of the Month for March, 2017 over at the International Food Safety and Quality Network, a community of food professionals sharing knowledge about food safety, equipment, certifications, and support.

From their about page:

The IFSQN was founded in 2003 to provide food safety practitioners with an online platform for sharing knowledge and information and to enable collaboration on the effective implementation, operation and continual improvement of food safety management systems. Twelve years on this remains our primary goal. As food safety regulations continue to develop and third party food safety certification standards are mandated globally the importance of the IFSQN has never been greater.

The IFSQN website attracts well over 1,500 unique visitors every day and we also distribute the popular Food Safety Talk newsletter to over 25,000 subscribers each and every week.

Our discussion forums are unique and unrivaled anywhere in the world; with over 40,000 members creating an archive of over 80,000 posts as well as 1’000’s of files and documents to assist members old and new.

Each year we run the popular Food Safety Live online conference which brings together thousands of food safety practitioners for a free day of learning and in January 2015 we began running weekly complimentary educational webinars for our members.

If you work in food check it out, the forum archive has an amazing array of topics, and there are some very talented people on there helping out for free purely to help other manufacturers produce safe food. It’s like VIN for food professionals, and that’s pretty awesome.

I get a sweet new mug, courtesy of Safefood 360 ™ as my “trophy”. Will display proudly next to my “Where your hairnet” trophy.

FDA’s Bad Bug Book refers consumers to Wikipedia for information on Listeria

I was perusing the Bad Bug Book while doing some research on the recent Blue Bell outbreak and came across a hyperlink. After hearing “do you want to know more?” in my head, I clicked through on some non-L. mono species of Listeria and was…confused. I quickly doubled back, thinking that maybe I had been redirected, but there it was.

FDA Bad Bug Book linking directly to wikipedia
FDA Bad Bug Book linking directly to Wikipedia

FDA describes the reference as “current information about the major known agents that cause foodborne illness.” Descriptions also include a statement that it should not be used as a comprehensive or clinical reference. However, this isn’t an excuse for making a consumer and industry reference link to a completely uncontrolled document source. The Bad Bug Book (2nd ed.) is a wonderfully written resource, both for a lay and industry audience; but the fact that the authors of the Listeria page referred to Wikipedia as an ongoing resource, without knowing or being able to control the content presented to consumers, is irresponsible. A nefarious Wikipedia troll could at any moment have an article claiming that L. grayi is a GMO herbicide borne bacteria found in bananas that causes uncontrolled crying and hair growth, and have the full support of the FDA behind their article.

Please don’t write that article.

A  currently live example of why this was such a poor decision is that if you click through to some of the pages, they don’t exist (as of 7/27/15). I don’t know if the author intended to write them him/herself and never got around to it, or if they simply assumed the pages existed, and then didn’t bother to review the content. I’m not satisfied with either of those answers, and if alternatively the reference articles were removed at some point, that also highlights what a poor decision those links were.

Given the sheer number of PhD’s involved in the book’s creation, I think taxpayers should expect a resource with material actually reviewed and sanctioned by FDA. The poor editing here is unacceptable and a change should be made to the current edition of the book.

Many of the other pages in the book name multiple related species, but either included links to NIH or CDC or included no link at all, both of which are acceptable alternatives. I won’t name the authors and editors of the book here, anyone who wants to know can find them at the front of the document. If you’re interested in bringing this to FDA’s attention in your own way, they’re on twitter as @US_FDA and additional points of contact are available at www.fda.gov.
ResearchBlogging.org

Food and Drug Administration (2012). Listeria Monocytogenes Bad Bug Book, Foodborne pathogenic microorganisms and natural toxins. Second Edition, 99-100

Misinformation and selective coverage change perception of outbreaks, but can be corrected by presenting the facts

While it’s not an animal product, the Listeriosis outbreak recently traced to apples is just as relevant to the food industry as a whole as any other food-borne illness outbreak. While I was looking for more information on the outbreak, I came across this gem* of an article posted on cnn.com.

*When this post was originally written, the text on the website read: “At least seven people have died after eating caramel apples that may have been infected with Listeria monocytogenes. Followed immediately by a quote from CDC which stated ‘Thirty-one ill people have been hospitalized and six deaths have been reported. Listeriosis contributed to three of these deaths, and it is unclear whether it contributed to an additional two deaths. The sixth death was unrelated to listeriosis.'” CNN has since removed the CDC quote, but kept their original ‘7 deaths’ statement.”

I found this disturbing on two levels. First, the fact that they reported that at least six people had died after eating contaminated apples, when listeriosis was only confirmed as cause of death for 3 of the cases and ruled out for the 6th.

“Hey Jen, what’s the body count up to on that outbreak article?”

“Looks like 3 for sure, could be 3-5”

“Thats it?”

“Don’t worry, we’ll round up to 6+, if you use a Log scale, they’re practically the same number.”

Second, they used the direct quote from CDC’s 12/31 update to directly contradict themselves in the following sentence. Who wrote this article? (update, clearly they wizened up and removed the quote on Jan 15, I wonder if they saw the reddit post. This is also a rhetorical question, their name is on the article, but we also need to assign blame to their editor.).

So what sort of impact could this statement have? Young, Norman, and Humphries reviewed the impact of media coverage on how dangerous we think they are. They found that indeed, those conditions/diseases that receive more media coverage are perceived by medical students as a “worse” condition. This can actually be a very good thing for infectious disease outbreaks, as rapid media coverage of the danger encourages people to avoid contact with others, leading to exponentially fewer cases the earlier you do it. This is less good however, when non-infectious diseases or inaccurate correlations are blown out of proportion (e.g. people avoiding pork to avoid H1N1).

The literature review included in the beginning of the article shows that this isn’t necessarily new information. However, the authors also examined the effect or including additional “objective” information about the conditions when asking students to rank their risk. The result was that, as seen in the chart below, when provided additional information the study participants then changed their views of the diseases. The large separation between what they had seen in media and what they had not seen shrank and they assigned more risk to those threats that aren’t often talked about, and became less nervous of the high coverage items in comparison.

http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0003552As a science blogger, this is my soapbox, as this study highlighted the responsibility for those who know more than the headline to speak up and share their knowledge, because people can and will be receptive to it as long as it’s available.

Unfortunately, the study was inherently biased as medical students are more likely to be receptive to new data (especially related to disease) as opposed to other groups with stronger existing bias’ (e.g. CAM users, anti-vaccination proponents, specialist doctors, or epidemiologists who may be swayed by previous outbreak coverage). The authors specifically did not survey students on their current media usage or biases, and therefore could not demonstrate the power of providing additional information on subjects they may have already formed strong opinions on.

I’d like to see the study repeated with an older group, as student’s opinions are more likely to be malleable as they are less likely to know as much about these illnesses or had personal experiences with them. A repeated study with participants of at least 40-years-old would be more telling and help us understand what effect providing additional objective information can have.

After all, as nice as it is to know students can be taught, they’re not the ones in public office. Are they also willing to change their minds when new information is made available?
Young ME, Norman GR, & Humphreys KR (2008). Medicine in the popular press: the influence of the media on perceptions of disease. PloS one, 3 (10) PMID: 18958167

Mummert A, & Weiss H (2013). Get the news out loudly and quickly: the influence of the media on limiting emerging infectious disease outbreaks. PloS one, 8 (8) PMID: 23990974ResearchBlogging.org