First off: PCRM has some great programs that promote research, animal welfare, and better medicine. The overall merit of their organization cannot be judged by a single program or campaign they have in place.
Now let’s tear this petition apart, because I actually had to check their website to make sure it was real, and not an over-the-top satire from The Onion.
The concern the committee wishes to correct via this petition is thus:
“Inconsistent with its statutory mandate, USDA regularly passes at inspection meat and poultry that is contaminated with feces. Although USDA implements a “zero tolerance” policy for fecal contamination, this policy applies to visible fecal contamination only. The result is that fecally contaminated meat and poultry products pass inspection as long as the feces on them are not “visible” to the naked eye.
This inspection policy conveys a misleading promise of “wholesomeness.” Feces may contain round worms, hair worms, tape worms, and leftover bits of whatever the animal excreting the feces may have eaten, not to mention the usual fecal components of digestive juices and various chemicals that the animal was in the process of excreting. Americans deserve fair notice that food products deemed “wholesome” by USDA would be deemed disgusting by the average consumer and adulterated under any reasonable reading of federal law.”
Not to quote without context, the petition goes on to list the ways in which non-obvious feces may be introduced to meat product, the most valid being shared scald/chill tanks in processing operations.
Ultimately, the corrections the committee is seeking are removal of the “wholesome” description from USDA inspected meats, begin treating feces as an adulterant, and:
“USDA should amend sections 317.2(l)(2) and 381.125(b)(2)(i) of the Code of Federal Regulations to exclude from the current mandatory label the sentence that reads, “This product was prepared from inspected and passed meat
and/or poultry.” USDA should amend sections 317.2(l)(2), 381.125(b)(2)(i), and 381.125(b)(2)(ii) of Title 9 to include in the mandatory label the following as the second-to-last sentence: “This product may be permeated with feces, which cooking does not remove.”
That’s some pretty heavy language, perfectly stated to play on the fears and squeamishness of your average consumer. However, I see nothing written there about food safety, so the intention of the change is obvious: prevent people from eating meat.
While the about page for PCRM mentions nothing about being proponents of animal rights, the amount of articles devoted to encouraging a purely vegan diet clearly shows that they have an anti-meat agenda. While they correctly advertize the health benefits of vegan foods, a quick search of their website saturates any visitor with the message “meat is bad, and animal agriculture is always cruel”.
The petition shines a light on a group that is ready to intentionally scare and mislead consumers into changing their lifestyle. As part of their justification that feces is everywhere, they cite one of their own studies, “Fecal Contamination in Retail Chicken Products“. In this study, the committee proved that invisible fecal contamination is everywhere by “testing for the presence of feces.”
No such test exists.
What they actually did was test for generic E. coli, which can act as an indicator organism for fecal contamination. HACCP programs in slaughter facilities use on-line enumeration of E. coli and other coliforms to validate critical control points for just that purpose. But in this case, rather than setting limits and using a statistical rationale to make a conclusion about the level of contamination, it appears that any evidence of the presence of E. coli led to the determination that the sample was contaminated with feces. Because there are no methods declared, this evidence could be as mundane as RNA fragments from a non-pathogenic strain recovered in an enriched sample.
The study is absolutely meaningless. There is no available data to review in terms of the levels of contamination, no methods listed for how the E. coli was enumerated, and finally no legitimate publication, suggesting that the construction of the study and its conclusions would not have passed peer review.
As part of the rule change, PCRM would like feces to be declared as an adulterant. Generally, USDA inspectors cannot allow adulterated products to enter commerce, adding to the ludicrosity of this proposal. By the PCRM’s definition, all meat products are covered in invisible feces, and the presence of invisible feces should prevent any product from entering commerce. In one swift move, PCRM will ensure that only clean, wholesome meats will be sold, i.e. none.
But have things changed over the years to make eating meat less safe? The PCRM thinks so. I have no data to argue whether or not Americans are cooking less (PCRM also neglected to provide data), and eating more RTE products, but I did think it was funny that when I read this:
“Americans today consume far more meat and poultry than ever before, thereby increasing their potential exposure to fecal contamination in these products”
When the first link I read on their website contained this graph…
Which is it PCRM? Whichever is more convenient for the ad campaign at the time?
(side note: if people indeed are eating out more in restaurants, that would mean they are eating at inspected restaurants where county health inspectors ensure adequate cooking temperatures, rather than at home where people rarely if ever have proper process control)
Finally, the idea that the USDA needs to declare the presence of invisible feces on every product that passes inspection makes no logical sense, and does nothing but mislead the consumer, not only by implying that the product isn’t safe in general, but that fully cooking the product makes no difference. If it wasn’t obvious by now that this proposed rule change isn’t solely to earn points with vegans, look closely the wording. In order to turn consumers off meat, PCRM would risk undoing years of public education and trust in proper cooking temperatures.
Clearly I took this proposal too literally, but because FSIS will actually have to review the proposal, and PCRM wants to brag about how these changes might occur, I offer one last piece of evidence to support my view that this proposal belongs on a tabloid.
…one of their proposed inspection marks literally contains a DO NOT EAT symbol.
Physicians Committee for Responsible Medicine (2013). Re: Fecal Contamination of Poultry and Meat USDA Petition for Rulemaking
Animal Science Review is now Fur, Farm, & Fork! Because I graduated from OSU, I have had to move the hosting for this blog to a wordpress URL.
I will continue to generate new content, with a completely unpredictable schedule as usual, at the new location. So if you’re someone who actually likes to read my stuff, be sure to change your bookmarks and RSS over to furfarmandfork.wordpress.com, as I will no longer update at blogs.oregonstate.edu/abouck.
Quitealot ofpeople are discussing this study from Japan examining the effect of light on the crowing behavior of roosters. The authors observed several birds in experimental conditions where light intensity and duration were controlled, taking observations with audio recorders and cameras. The scenarios presented were a daylight cycle of 12 hours of light and dim light respectively, and constant dim light. Observations were recorded for a period of 14 days, producing this graph.
So many reporters on the study have run with this, making declarations about what great timekeepers roosters are, and how cool it is that they don’t need the sun to know when dawn is.
Well, approximately when dawn is.
“Under dimLL conditions, a free-running rhythm of crowing was observed with a period of 23.7 ± 0.1 h (n = 4), but this free-running rhythmicity gradually damped out”
Interesting, so the sun is unnecessary until it’s been gone for a while, then we start to get some variation. This dampening effect is even more obvious when you place testosterone implants in the roosters.
Don’t get me wrong, the fact that Roosters have this accurate of a circadian clock is impressive! It’s very interesting biologically, but it’s not some infallible atomic clock. While many news sites are toting that Roosters are independent of the sun, the opposite is true. Circadian rhythms are directly calibrated primarily by light cycling, with temperature being another important environmental cue. To confirm the roosters knew what time it was, the authors examined the effect of light or recorded crowing sounds at different times of day. They found that there were fewer crowing behaviors at random dawn times than at the “correct time” of day.
This doesn’t mean the roosters know it’s 5pm, but their circadian rhythm is telling them that it isn’t dawn. However, the sun still “came up” so we witness some halfhearted crowing. Anyone who has ever traveled out of their timezone knows exactly how this feels: these roosters have jet lag. While the sun may be coming up, their circadian clocks are telling them that it feels like a different time of day, so they crow in response to the light, but with reluctance and confusion, much in the same way you sleepily get up on vacation when the Louvre opens, even though it feels like 5PM to you.
“But Austin,” you tell me, “aren’t you anthropomorphizing?” While I admit roosters may not empathize with trans-Atlantic vacations, we know that chickens are dependent on daylight to calibrate their biological rhythms because we do it all the time. We increase egg production by simulating summer lighting year round, and alter feed intake in broilers by changing their daylight cycle. We also use this trick to bring mares into heat.
The loss of rhythm observed in 24 hour dim light is likely to become more and more sporadic, and even more so if the roosters were housed singly (as there is some group consensus due to competitive crowing). I would propose that if you could keep the roosters on a light cycle that progressively moved forward an hour a day until dawn was at 2pm, the roosters would crow with the same strict rhythm independent of the actual sun. If the authors of the study choose to pursue this hypothesis, an easy test would be to simply progress their artificial sun’s rise and fall over time.
Alternatively, we could fly several roosters with us to Paris, and see if they wake us up before the Louvre opens.
Shimmura, T., & Yoshimura, T. (2013). Circadian clock determines the timing of rooster crowing Current Biology, 23 (6) DOI: 10.1016/j.cub.2013.02.015
It appears that the agencies that we rely on to track disease outbreaks need to start tracking disease, not just their own jurisdiction.
An article in Sociology of Health and Illness piqued my interest this last week that reveals the amount of segregation different government agencies have when dealing with zoonotic disease. The understanding of the goals and connections between livestock, wildlife, and human health among these agencies are often apathetic at best, and antagonistic at worst.
The author of the article took it upon himself to interview several government agencies with different species and regional jurisdictions, and was able to reveal what he calls “organizational silos” that develop when the values and cultures of these different agencies prevent them from working with outside groups. When attempting to monitor emerging infectious disease (EID), identification of cross-species movement is critical to predicting and preventing pandemics. Unfortunately, while they may be able to acknowledge the geographical movement of EID’s, many organizations are blinded by their specific oversight of humans or animals.
There are many telling comments contained in his interviews, and I encourage you to read the article to get the whole scope of the problem, but I’ve chosen to list a few of my favorites here:
From the Director of Animal Health Division at a state Department of Agriculture:
“‘We got a positive [flu result] on one of our routine surveillance tests’ of a poultry farm, Spencer complained, and ‘we were required to contact the USDA right away because of the pandemic Asian strain’. Spencer added, ‘It seems a little silly because there was no clinical illness on the property, and the strain came back something pretty common…’ In Spencer’s eyes, it was ‘hard to justify’ reporting the flu strain to the USDA… These days, Spencer said he passes on information about disease events to the state DOH and leaves it to them to tell local health boards. ‘If somebody screws up’, he shrugged, ‘at least we can blame the [Department of Health]’.”
Not an uncommon perspective for many organizations, or even coworkers! Let’s hear from another director at the USDA Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS):
“Clinton argued that the ‘single biggest threat for disease’ comes from ‘wildlife intermingling with domestic livestock’. He told me, ‘You can’t control the birds’ and he rightly pointed out that ducks are flu incubators. If the bird flu – which Clinton called the top priority of his agency – becomes pandemic in humans, he told me, it will come fromwaterfowl.”
Interesting, I might argue that we have much more interaction with domestic fowl (can’t remember the last time I handled a wild duck), but let’s see what others had to say about this viewpoint.
“Nina Marano, a zoonotic disease expert at the CDC, told me that ‘most of the outbreaks have occurred through interaction with domestic poultry’. Another example: though poultry farmers singled out wild birds called cattle egrets as the source of a 2004 flu outbreak in California, the egrets tested negative – it turned out that contaminated eggcontainers circulating between farms were the culprit (McNeil 2004).”
Finally, one last example of how a zoonotic disease often isn’t treated as such by human health agencies. From a Director of the Infectious Disease Bureau of a city Public Health Commission:
“When I asked Sanders to describe a zoonose that she responded to, she mentioned a recent outbreak of salmonella…and she believed that the pathogen came from two live poultry markets in Chinatown. What I found telling was that, in Sanders’ lengthy discussion of this outbreak, she did not mention any communication with veterinary medicine agencies.While the Disease Bureau’s response to salmonella followed protocol, it did not turn to the Department of Agriculture, the USDA, or any other agencies involved in animal health for help or information. Nor did it share information with them.”
Clearly here the city health board considered this a food safety issue, but payed no attention to the implications of getting meat from an approved source (a domain which definitely belongs to the USDA), or the fact that other agriculture agencies may be interested in a salmonella outbreak. There are many other telling quotes within these interviews, and I again encourage you to check out the article.
The author of the study concludes that the only examples we get of harmonious collaboration are for those diseases which are in the public eye such as rabies and influenza (H5N1 and H1N1), though we still have lines drawn even when the public is asking for action (“‘we have enough H1N1 to worry about without worrying about turkeys’. He concluded that turkey infection is ‘a Department of Agriculture issue’”). The most shining example of the failure to communicate by these institutions in the article is the discovery of Bird Flu in the US.
The first human cases of H5N1 in the US were wrongly diagnosed with St. Louis encephalitis, resulting in the deaths of 3 patients. A veterinary pathologist at the Bronx zoo observed neurological symptoms in some of the zoo’s birds and suspected a link, however encephalitis would not have killed her birds. Both the CDC and local DOH would not accept new information from her, instead keeping the encephalitis diagnosis. She then sent specimens to a friend at an Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases, who revealed the etiology of the disease and I’m sure had a hilarious conversation with the CDC and DOH (could you please explain to us why this veterinarian is doing your job casually on the side, and doing it better?). By the time the CDC received/accepted this information, H5N1 was endemic in the area.
Nothing against the CDC, it’s a fantastic organization, but this highlights the closed lines of communication that exist between human and animal agencies the author discusses. In order to prevent the next EID crisis, rigorous epidemiology is critical. Refusing to acknowledge the importance of cross-species movement to the virulence and emergence of a disease that falls under your agency does not only prevent you from identifying the next source of infection, but leaves you with nothing but reactive measures catered to a epidemic that you refuse to fully appreciate.
Jerolmack, C. (2012). Who’s worried about turkeys? How ‘organisational silos’ impede zoonotic disease surveillance Sociology of Health & Illness DOI: 10.1111/j.1467-9566.2012.01501.x
This is the first study I’ve found that was interested in cataloging bacterial diversity among subclinical (or asymptomatic) infections. While they may be less threatening to the animal’s overall health, these infections have great significance in the world of animal agriculture, where they restrict growth (or in this case, milk production), and encourage the use of medicated feeds which in turn motivate people to purchase organic products. Identifying the risk factors and causes of these infections could therefore impact both the management of food animals, and any legislation defining how and when medications can be used. With that in mind, let’s jump back into mastitis, and everyone’s favorite gram-positive, S. aureus.
S. aureus is one of many bacteria that cause mastitis, however it is of additional importance as it often causes chronic or recurring cases of mastitis that result in unusable milk and discomfort of the animal. In this study, the authors investigated 11 dairy farms where they expected to find S. aureus, based on previous culture findings at each farm. They defined cows that they took milk samples from as having new or chronic infections based on somatic cell counts (SCC) in the milk. If values were >200,000 cells/mL for the month of collection the infections were considered new, whereas if cell counts were >200,000 cells/mL for more than 2 months, those infections were considered chronic. They took a single milk sample from each teat of the infected cows, for a total of 1,354 mammary glands from 350 cows.
Pulse field electrophoresis was used to identify the different subspecies/serotypes/pulsotypes (pick your word), and to identify the genes coding for enterotoxin production that had been amplified by PCR. An ELISA test was used last to detect the presence of several enterotoxins.
As the majority of exposure to enterotoxins produced my S. aureus is through milk and dairy products, subclinical infections of S. aureus are very important as a food safety control point. Unlike cows with clinical cases that are removed from production, cows with subclinical infections continue to contribute milk that makes it to the consumer, provided that the SSC is <750,000 cells/mL. The authors were unable to detect a large amount of enterotoxin in their samples, but many of the pulsotypes contained the genes coding for their production. Other studies cited by the author report the common presence of these genes in S. aureus samples, but expression rates are inconclusive or unexplored. This means that theoretically, subclinical cows could be introducing these bacterial toxins into consumer milk in small amounts.
It’s difficult to tell how significant these amounts might be. Toxic doses of one of the enterotoxins, “Toxic Shock Syndrome Toxin 1”, has been found to be as low as 100 micrograms/Kg in miniature pigs. The concentrations that may be introduced through contaminated milk, and the bioavailability when ingested, should be explored. Takeuchi et al. (1998) were able to detect the presence of TSST- 1 in bulk milk tanks, but no one has yet to quantify the amounts of TSST- 1 potentially present in pasteurized milk.
All that being said, what good is this new information? It can be argued that because these infections are chronic and/or subclinical that these strains of S. aureus aren’t very pathogenic, but they’re still causing inflammation. By identifying common serotypes and factors leading to the subclinical infection of a herd, perhaps there are simple management changes that can prevent infection. Milking is an almost sterile procedure, with sanitation of the teats both prior and following milking, wearing gloves, and forestripping; but there could be other tricks that would target risk factors related to the spread of subclinical pathogens, especially those that are specific to a location.
Bulanda M, Zaleska M, Mandel L, Talafantova M, Travnicek J, Kunstmann G, Mauff G, Pulverer G, & Heczko PB (1989). Toxicity of staphylococcal toxic shock syndrome toxin 1 for germ-free and conventional piglets. Reviews of infectious diseases, 11 Suppl 1 PMID: 2928643
Oliveira L, Rodrigues AC, Hulland C, & Ruegg PL (2011). Enterotoxin production, enterotoxin gene distribution, and genetic diversity of Staphylococcus aureus recovered from milk of cows with subclinical mastitis. American journal of veterinary research, 72 (10), 1361-8 PMID: 21962279
Takeuchi, S., Ishiguro, K., Ikegami, M., Kaidoh, T., & Hayakawa, Y. (1998). Production of toxic shock syndrome toxin by Staphylococcus aureus isolated from mastitic cow’s milk and farm bulk milk Veterinary Microbiology, 59 (4), 251-258 DOI: 10.1016/S0378-1135(96)01253-9
I’ve recently been collectingevidence that suggests that we could increase adoption rates by incorporating more group housing into shelters. In building my study, I’m now interested in what factors make cats less desirable at shelters so that potentially we could market less desirable cats by placing them in housing that will make them more desirable. Lepper et. al (2002) examined just that, in a study with over 4000 cats they examined multiple variables in order to determine certain predictors of adoption. They also examined dogs, but I’ll just be discussing the cats today. Check out the article for yourself if you are interested in the dog analysis.
It has been shown that there is a clear correlation with fearful behaviors and euthanasia (Gourkow and Fraser, 2006), therefore we should be doing everything we can to reduce fearful behaviors. I’ve suggested that when we are forced to make euthanasia decisions based on space, we need to take temperament into account to evaluate the potential for adoption.
Among other variables however, this study illuminates factors outside the control of behavior modification that may
influence adopt-ability. Comparing coat color, the authors chose to set tabby cats as the standard, and were able to determine that white, color point, and grey cats were the most likely to be adopted. Brown and Black were the least likely, a fact that any former shelter employee wouldn’t be surprised to hear.
Cats’ whose color or features could be attributed to a specific breed (such as Persians) were in high demand. This study found that coat length did not have an effect on adoption rates, but other researchers have found that more than half of adopters list coat length as an important factor in their selection. Interestingly, Siamese cats had no higher rate of adoption than other cats in the study.
To me, this information says that we could easily be selecting animals that are potentially less desirable, and placing them in the front or lobby areas of shelters in group settings, and keeping kittens and more desirable animals in less prominent housing. This simple management change could potentially increase adoption rates overall, and of course reduce euthanasia rates, the goal of any shelter.
Merry Lepper, Philip H. Kass, & Lynette A. Hart (2002). Prediction of Adoption Versus Euthanasia Among Dogs and Cats in a California Animal Shelter Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science, 5, 29-42 DOI: 10.1207/S15327604JAWS0501_3
As I continue my research trend concerning adoption rates in shelter cats, I came across this thesis by Nadine Gourkow, who is much more famous than I ever realized while reading the article. A brief google search of her name reveals that she is at the forefront of shelter cat welfare, and clearly I need to read more of her work as I continue to shape my study.
Her masters thesis explores the background for my intended study, in that it seeks to examine not only those factors inherent to the cats and their housing situation, but in what potential adopters are looking for. I’m hoping to collect as much of this information as possible to develop a hypothesis as to whether shelter layout could increase adoption rates by marketing less attractive cats in situations where they may be perceived as more adoptable.
I’ll admit firsthand that I didn’t read all 80 pages of the thesis, I was primarily interested in the methods, results, and discussion, as such I may have missed some of the finer points of Ms. Gourkow’s introduction. My personal interest was in the conclusions she drew based on the study design and how they could impact my own study design.
Four treatments were used in the study, which varied by complexity of cages (from a single animal in a barren cage to multiple cats in an enriched enclosure) and frequency/consistency of handling by shelter staff. I was primarily interested in the difference between singly housed cats compared with multiple cat housing.
I was pleased to see that this study only contained adult cats, as I’ve had concerns about the skewed adoption rate of kittens found more often in group housing in other studies. It was unfortunate that the handling effects could not be separated from the housing treatment in the analysis, however, it seems clear that either the consistent handling or cage enrichment had a large effect.
Where the cats in the single, barren, cage (standard) treatment experienced a 45% adoption rate, all of the other treatments had 74% or more adopted.
Did you read that? By adding a perch and hiding area (along with consistent handling) to a cat housed alone, they increased the number of cats adopted by 29%.
That’s an impressive change, however, I am more concerned with single vs. group housing, and thus was even more interested in what adopters listed as important criteria in their selection of a cat. The results clearly suggest that cats housed in groups have an advantage.
When it comes down to what adopters want to see in a cat, we can’t necessarily alter desirable traits such as “friendliness towards adopter,” “playfulness,” or “happy disposition.” But we can suppress other desirable traits by not providing opportunities for animals to exhibit them. The factors that I want to focus on are those that are enhanced or only provided through the use of group housing.
Being able to enter the cage with cats (74% of respondents)
Friendly with other cats (69%)
Able to view with other cats (52%)
Alternatively, while it may be essential for the cats’ mental well being, seeing perches and toys in cages was not very influential for adopters (38% or lower). These items may still play a large role in adoption rates due to other factors such as playfulness (86%) and reduction of fear behaviors (which dramatically increase euthanasia rates), but from a marketing and management standpoint, the easy change would be to house more cats in groups.
Arguments against housing cats in groups are primarily based on disease management. I recently read that roughly half of the cats in shelter environments become infected with contagious upper respiratory disease during their stay, and my own anecdotal experience supports that percentage. The article here, however, showed no difference in animals quarantined or euthanized due to illness between single and group treatments.
Another argument suggests that strange cats experience more stress when placed together, but Kessler and Turner along with Ms. Gourkow both reveal that space per cat plays a larger role in mitigating that stress, and that after a certain period stress levels become similar across all groups.
The picture that I’m beginning to piece together from these papers is that cats that are housed in groups are more desirable and consistently enjoy higher adoption rates. To use this information, I would hope that shelters would incorporate more group housing, and select animals for limited space based on adoptable attributes. I’ll continue exploring group housing’s influence on adoption rates, but now I’m interested in finding other traits that could make animals less desirable so that we can make placement decisions based on an animals marketable traits. The goal of this line of thinking being: if we can increase adoption rates for our less adoptable animals, can we reduce euthanasia rates overall?
Edit: I found the published version of the study featured in this thesis, and added the citation below.
Nadine Gourkow (2001). FACTORS AFFECTING THE WELFARE AND ADOPTION RATE OF CATS IN AN ANIMAL SHELTER University of British Columbia
N Gourkow, & D Fraser (2006). The effect of housing and handling practices on the welfare, behavior and selection of domestic cats (Felis sylvestris catus) by adopters in an animal shelter Animal Welfare, 15, 371-377
This article is one of many that I’m currently reviewing to build the introduction for the original research I plan to complete this summer/fall. This is the first of several posts discussing shelter cats to come in the next several weeks.
This study by Kessler and Turner (1997) took a look at the stress levels of cats introduced to a shelter/boarding facility-type environment over the first two weeks of their stay, and cross-examined those housed alone, in pairs, and in groups. 45 homeless animals that had already been at the facilities for some time were selected as a control, and 140 animals staying for temporary boarding were observed for the first two weeks of their stay.
Overall, the authors were able to conclude that in a two week stay, two-thirds of the cats acclimated very well, and after two weeks their stress levels, while still higher, were very comparable to the control. They suggest that other options be explored by the owners of the other third, with a special emphasis on the 4% of the cats who were extremely stressed even after a two week stay.
I endorse this wholeheartedly as I often watched animals for owners as a job when I was much younger. While they may be given more brief human contact, working out a deal with a house-sitter or neighbor to take care of your pets while you are away can be much less stressful for them than if they are placed in an unfamiliar environment with strange people and animals. You reduce their risk of exposure to disease, and help some young lad save money for college (I did…though some of it bought movie popcorn).
The more surprising conclusion was that housing the cats singly, pairs, or groups appeared to have no influence on the stress levels of the animals. There appears to be a slightly faster decline in stress for group housed cats on the authors’ graph, however it isn’t addressed, and the difference is minimal.
The conclusions have merit, but I have several problems with the selection of control animals in this study, namely, the fact that they aren’t representative of the experimental group. The biggest problem is that only homeless shelter cats were used for the control, and only boarding cats for the experimental group, where either all homeless shelter cats or all boarding cats should have been included. The second large flaw I see is that all of the control animals were housed in groups of 6 to eight, effectively ruining any comparisons you may want to make when looking at the other housing situations. In a study named Stress and Adaptation of Cats (Felis silvestris catus) Housed Singly, in Pairs, and in Groups, you would think the control would use all of those situations.
The authors briefly mentioned the stress caused by cats that may be less social, or housed with familiar animals versus strangers, but were unable to control those factors with the way the data was collected and prepared. When it comes down to it, the control group just wasn’t…controlled. They were unable to fully examine how quickly single or pair cats acclimated to the boarding facility because you couldn’t compare them to a control cat in the same situation.
Kessler and Turner have another study (1999) examining stress levels of shelter cats in terms of animal density and cage size. Interestingly enough, they found that group density was “highly correlated with the stress level of animals housed in groups”, indicating that we should have seen some differences from the study above as well. That research was done two years after the 1997 study, so perhaps the authors also thought that those questions remained unanswered from the original study. I’ll be looking out for some newer research on the subject and may chime in on it again soon.
M R Kessler, & D C Turner (1997). Stress and Adaptation of Cats (Felis Silvestris Catus) Housed Singly, in Pairs and in Groups in Boarding Catteries Animal Welfare, 6, 243-254
M R Kessler, & D C Turner (1999). Effects of Density and Cage Size on Stress in Domestic Cats (Felis Silvestris Catus) Housed in Animal Shelters and Boarding Catteries Animal Welfare, 8, 259-267
Whew, sorry for the delay in posts, I’m still working on that personal project that shall be revealed soon. In lieu of a research post this week, I thought I’d share a resource I’m using.
This Guide to Cat Colors created by deviant artist majnouna is an extremely detailed and easy to read chart describing the coloration terms and standards of the Cat Fancier’s Association. I’m using it to create standards for color that I’m using as one of the variables for my proposed research I’m hoping to get going by the end of this month. You can even buy it as a poster!
Regular posting to resume next week, thank you for your patience!
The Dog Zombie (a blogger I regularly follow and is often seen on ASR) took the time to mention an address made at the 2nd UK Conference of Science Journalists, which began with a call to action:
“I think every writer, every journalist, every scholar, should tell you where he’s coming from before he tells you what he knows.”
She herself took the time to do this on her blog and I think it’s not a bad idea. While the About section on ASR gives you a good overview of my experience and education, perhaps a little more insight into my background will give readers a better hold on my personal biases, and they’ll be able to evaluate my opinions using those tools to judge them for themselves. So here we go!
Culturally, I am an Oregonian. While I was born in Washington and spent a few years in Texas, the majority of my sentient time growing up has been in Central Oregon, and the almost all of my education has been provided for me in this state. I was raised within the Lutheran church, and consider myself a spiritual individual though I keep that part of my life fairly private. Socially, I’m an extrovert who believes that maturity is simply knowing when and where to be immature. Politically, I tend to be liberal on most social issues, but conservative when discussing economics and constitutional rights. Musically, I’m a long time musician who’s willing to listen to anything once, but I lack the energy or motivation to keep up with popular music of my own time. My favorite songs or pieces are usually from movie or video game scores, and I enjoy jazz and classic rock. Intellectually, I consider myself a scientist not only from my education but my need to question statements posed as fact, reluctance to describe in absolutes, and desire to evaluate evidence. I pride myself on being able to prove my own opinions wrong when presented with contradicting evidence. My desire is to someday be “an expert in my field” and make an impact on the world (at least in my field), but I haven’t yet found what that will exactly be. I love learning new things and often try to do too many new or different things, becoming a jack of all trades, when I really need to limit my interests to become a master of one.
My current goals surround gaining admission to veterinary school, however I do not see that as my only option for a career in veterinary medicine. Combined with my love of research and budding interest in microbiology, a pHD in veterinary medicine, microbiology, or public health would also allow me to study animal medicine and make my impact. I believe that scientific communication between the academic pedestal and the public is vital to making the changes to consumer and industry perspectives that will be necessary to continue feeding the world in a way that is ethical, realistic, and sustainable. My hope is that in the future as an “expert” I can continue to find ways to reach out to those not reading journals through extension or my own personal efforts/publications.